腰痛患者常見的10個問題

 
  1. What is low back pain?

什麼是下腰痛?

Low back pain is a common problem for many people. It can be caused by many different things, but you can easily prevent it by learning how to improve your posture and lift and exercise correctly.

腰痛有多種類型:可以是持續性的鈍痛,也可以是突然的刺痛(使人不敢運動身體)。如果你摔倒或是搬動重物,背痛可以迅速發生;反之,背痛也可以緩慢地加劇。

腰痛患者常見的10個問題

2. What can cause low back pain?

腰痛原因有哪些?

腰痛有很多原因。背部的機械性問題可以造成疼痛。下面列舉了幾種機械性問題: 椎間盤破裂 痙攣 肌肉緊張 椎間盤脫出。

扭傷、骨折、意外事故和跌跤也可以導致背痛。

還有其他一些疾病可以導致背痛,比如: 脊柱側凸 脊椎滑脫症

 關節炎 脊髓狹窄 懷孕 腎結石 感染 子宮內膜組織異位形成

 纖維肌痛症。

其他導致背痛的原因包括感染、腫瘤或精神緊張。

3. When is low back pain serious?

我何時應當為腰痛看醫生?

Call your family doctor if:

•Pain goes down your leg below your knee

•Your leg, foot, groin or rectal area feels numb

•You have fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, weakness or sweating

•You lose control over going to the bathroom

•Your pain was caused by an injury

•Your pain is so intense you can't move around

•Your pain doesn't seem to be getting better after 2 to 3 weeks

如果您有下列情形出現,則請就醫: 麻木或刺痛 劇烈的疼痛,而且休息後仍不緩解 跌跤或受傷後出現疼痛

 疼痛并兼有下列情形:

— 排尿困難— 虛弱— 腿部麻木— 發熱— 在不節食的情況下出現體重減輕。

4. What can I do for relief when I've hurt my lower back?

如何減緩腰痛?

The best position for relief when your back hurts is to lie on your back on the floor with pillows under your knees, with your hips and knees bent and your feet on a chair, or just with your hips and knees bent. This takes the pressure and weight off your back.

腰痛患者常見的10個問題

可以採取上述屈髖屈膝的體位減緩您的腰痛。急性期建議至少臥床休息1~2天,但是如果休息時間過長可能使你的肌肉變弱,並不利於康復。

5. What else can I do for relief?

我可以採取什麼治療方式?

Heating pads can help to relax painful muscle spasms. Use heat for 20 to 30 minutes at a time. Ice packs and massages may also give relief.

Nonprescription medicines that reduce pain and/or swelling include aspirin, acetaminophen (brand name: Tylenol), naproxen (brand name: Aleve) and ibuprofen (some brand names: Advil, Motrin).

您可以採取物理治療手段、藥物治療、針灸推拿治療等。

6. What's the best position for sitting,stangding or sleeping?

腰痛患者怎樣採取正確的坐姿、站姿和睡姿?

Treatment of ongoing back problems must be directed at the cause. This may mean losing weight (because being overweight can make back pain worse), exercising and improving your posture when you're sitting, standing and sleeping.

坐姿:

挺直背或用下腰的支撐坐在椅上上,保持你的膝蓋要高於你的臀部。調整座椅或者使用一張矮凳子來支撐你的腳。通過移動你的整個身體而不是只是扭腰。

當你開車時,座位要向前移動和坐直。這能幫助你不用躬屈向前去伸手抓方向盤,如果你必須開車要坐很久的話你可以放一個小枕頭或者捲起的毛巾在你的背後。

站姿:

站立時肩膀要平直放鬆,胸部微向前傾,下腹內收挺直,保持腰部的正常弧度,使背部肌肉放鬆,盡量避免身體傾斜。如果需要長時間站立工作,幾分鐘應活動一下,在站立的過程中,要學會放鬆調節自己。同時,要避免穿高跟鞋長時間站立工作。

睡姿:

最好的睡眠姿勢是兩腿彎曲,你需要放一個枕頭在頭的下面支撐你的脖子,你要放一個枕頭在兩個膝蓋之間,

如果仰臥,建議放一個枕頭在膝蓋下面和一個小枕頭在背部下面,不建議俯臥除非你把枕頭放在髖部。

使用一個堅固的床墊。如果你的床墊太柔軟,需要二分之一的木板放在床墊下增加支撐。

7. Tips for preventing back strain?

如何預防下腰痛?

不要彎腰撿東西,通過彎曲膝蓋和蹲下來撿東西。保持背部挺直,物品靠近自己身體,避免扭曲自己的身體。

推而不是拉你必須移動的重物。

如果你必須坐在辦公桌或汽車上很長時間的話,停下來伸展一下。

穿較低的高跟鞋或平底鞋(1英尺或更低)。

定期鍛煉,不運動的生活方式會出現腰痛。

8. What exercises can I do to strengthen my back?

如何鍛煉?

腰痛患者常見的10個問題

§ Standing hamstring stretch 膕繩肌牽伸(站立)

Do 10 to 25 repetitions, then relax. Donot attempt this exercise if the pain is too severe. This exercise buildsstrength in the lower back area.

10~25次,如果太疼痛,不要嘗試這個練習

§ Quadruped arm/leg raise 四點跪位(伸上肢/腿)

Keeping your knees bent, squeeze thebuttocks and hold for a second or two,then relax. Do 10 repetitions. This isanother strength-buildingexercise.

保持1~2秒,重複10次

Pull one knee toward your chest and holda second. Extend the otherleg out atthe same time. Stretch the back muscle onone side, then repeat withthe otherleg. Repeat 10 times. Discontinue theexercise if pain is overbearing.

§ Gluteal stretch臀肌牽伸

Pull one knee toward your chest and holda second. Extend the other leg out at the same time. Stretch the back muscle onone side, then repeat with the other leg. Repeat 10 times. Discontinue theexercise if pain is overbearing.

將一側膝關節拉向胸前,保持1s,重複10次。如果痛苦持續,停止運動。

§ Cat and camel

A helpful starting exercise iscontrolled,gentle spine movement with the Cat & Camel. First arch your backup towardthe ceiling, like an angry cat. Increase the movement with a deepinhale. Thenexhale, tighten (or brace) your abdominals, drop your chest towardthe floorand lift your head slightly as shown. Repeat this exercise 10 times.

首先向上弓起你的背,就像一個憤怒的貓。運動時加強深吸氣,然後呼氣,收緊腹部,放平軀幹,抬起頭,如圖所示。重複動作10次。調整脊柱運動協調。

§ Pelvic tilt骨盆前傾

Staying in the same position, bring bothknees up together and holdthatposition for a second or two. Drop your feet tothe floor and repeat again.Do this 10 times.

每次1~2秒, 重複動作10次。

§ Partial curl 軀幹旋轉

Hold the position for 5 to 7seconds,release and relax for 2~3 seconds before repeating.

保持5~7秒,之間休息2~3秒,重複10次

§ Extension exerise 軀幹伸展訓練

Hold the position for 5 to 7seconds,release and relax for 2~3 seconds before repeating.

保持5~7秒,之間休息2~3秒,重複10次

§ Side Plank 側向支撐

Hold the position for 5 to 7seconds,release and relax for 2~3 seconds before repeating.

保持5~7秒,之間休息2~3秒,重複5次

圖片摘自:美國JOSPT(骨科和運動物理治療雜誌)

9. I've heard a lot about core strength. Will improving my core strength help? What kind of exercises make my core stronger?

我聽說很多關於核心力量,提高自己的核心力量會有幫助嗎?那一類的核心訓練適合我?

腰痛患者常見的10個問題

圖片摘自:美國JOSPT(骨科和運動物理治療雜誌)

10. When need surgery?

什麼情況下需要考慮手術治療?

大部分患有慢性背痛的人不需要接受手術。手術通常是在其他療法不起效果的情況下用於治療慢性背痛。如果您有下列病症,則可能需要接受手術:

 椎間盤脫出。當一個或多個保護脊椎骨的椎間盤受到損害,椎間盤中央的果凍樣的核心會漏出, 造成

疼痛。 脊髓狹窄。這一疾病造成脊椎管腔變得狹窄。

 脊椎滑脫症。脊柱中的一塊或多塊骨骼滑脫出正常位置,造成脊椎狹窄。 脊柱骨折。造成脊柱骨折的原因包括對脊柱的打擊或是骨質疏鬆症導致的骨骼鬆解。 退行性椎間盤疾病。隨著人的衰老,有的人的椎間盤會破裂,造成劇烈的疼痛。

腫瘤、感染或是馬尾綜合徵(一種神經根疾病)造成背痛的情況比較少見。如有以上情況, 病人需要立即接受手術,以緩解疼痛和預防其他的併發症

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